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Furukawa Review No.23

Independent Control of the Gain and Noise Figure Spectra of Raman Amplifiers Using Bi-Directional Pumping

Yoshihiro Emori, Soko Kado and Shu Namiki


Conventional multi-wavelength pumped Raman amplifiers normally use backward pumping, because, in comparison to forward pumping, it has less gain saturation, and less RIN transfer from the pumping light to the signal light. Backward pumping has a problem, however, in that when gain is flattened over a broad bandwidth, the wavelength-dependence of the noise figure becomes pronounced. This paper shows that, in a broadband Raman amplifier having five pumping wavelengths, it is possible by using only the three shortest wavelengths for bi-directional pumping, to design the gain spectrum and the noise figure spectrum independently.

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